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APO B-100 ABSTRACTS: Independent mutations at codon 3500 of the apolipoprotein B gene are associated with hyperlipidemia.

Gaffney D, Reid JM, Cameron IM, Vass K, Caslake MJ, Shepherd J, Packard CJ Institute of Biochemistry, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Scotland [Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1995 Aug;15(8):1025-9]

The apoB arginine-to glutamine change at codon 3500 has become established as a cause of failure of binding of the LDL particle to its receptor and the consequent hypercholesterolemia of familial defective apoB 100. A search for further similar mutations was undertaken by systematic screening of a candidate region of the apoB gene from individuals with hypercholesterolemia. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were used. We describe two families in which a different mutation in the codon 3500 causes an arginine-to-tryptophan substitution. Most adults in these families who have this mutation have hypercholesterolemia. LDL derived from all who have inherited the mutation is dysfunctional in that it allows only poor growth of an LDL cholesterol-dependent cell line. We conclude that this arginine 3500 is essential to the function of apoB and that its loss and replacement by glutamine or tryptophan is responsible for the hypercholesterolemia of familial defective apoB 100.

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