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APO A-IV ABSTRACTS: Genetic variation at the apoA-IV gene locus and response to diet in familial hypercholesterolemia.

Carmena-Ramon R, Ascaso JF, Real JT, Ordovas JM, Carmena R; Department of Medicine, Hospital Clinico, University of Valencia, Spain.
[Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998 Aug;18(8):1266-74]

Plasma lipid response to dietary fat and cholesterol is, in part, genetically controlled. The apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV protein; APOA4, gene) has been shown to influence the response to dietary changes in normolipidemic individuals. The response to diet in subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is also variable, and no studies are available on the influence of APOA4 mutations on dietary response in these subjects. We studied the effect of 2 common apoA-IV genetic variants (Gln360-->His and Thr347-->Ser) on the lipid response to the National Cholesterol Education Program type I (NCEP-I) diet in 67 FH heterozygotes (43 women and 24 men). Subjects were studied at baseline (after consuming for 1 month a diet with 35% fat [10% saturated] and 300 mg/d cholesterol) and after 3 months of consuming a low-fat diet. No sex-related differences were found, and results were combined for men and women. The APOA4-360 mutation was assessed in 67 subjects, 51 with genotype 1/1 and 16 with genotype 1/2. The APOA4-2 allele was associated with marginally significantly lower (P=0.049) low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and significantly lower (P=0.027) apoB levels independent of diet effects. After consuming an NCEP-I diet, carriers of the APOA4-2 allele showed a significantly lower reduction in apoB concentration (6.2%) than 1/1 subjects (14.1%; P=0.036); however, no significant differences in response were noted for LDL cholesterol. The APOA4-347 mutation was assessed in 63 individuals, 44 with the A/A allele and 19 with the A/T and T/T alleles. No significant differences were observed in baseline or post-NCEP-I diet values for these 2 groups in total, LDL, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol and plasma apoB levels. After dietary intervention, A/A individuals showed significant reductions in plasma triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels; no changes were found in carriers of the T allele. Haplotype analysis suggested that in these FH subjects, the APOA4-360-2 allele was associated with lower plasma lipid levels during the NCEP-I diet period, whereas no significant effects were observed for the APOA4-347-T allele.

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