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AT1R ABSTRACTS: Angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II receptor 1 polymorphisms: association with early coronary disease.

Alvarez R, Reguero JR, Batalla A, Iglesias-Cubero G, Cortina A, Alvarez V, Coto E Instituto Reina Sofia de Investigacion Nefrologica-Laboratorio de Genetica Molecular, Hospital Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain. Cardiovasc Res 1998 Nov;40(2):375-9]

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between coronary artery disease and polymorphisms at the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) genes.

METHODS: A total of 181 patients younger than 50 years and 240 controls from the same homogeneous Caucasian population (Asturias, Northern Spain) were genotyped (using polymerase chain reaction) for the ACE insertion/deletion (ACE-I/D) and the AT1R A/C transversion (AT1R-A/C) (3-untranslated region) polymorphisms.

RESULTS: The DD-genotype was at a non-significant higher frequency among patients (50%) than in controls (41%). No difference between the two groups was found for the AT1R-genotypes. Distribution of ACE-genotypes according to AT1R-genotypes showed a significant association between ACE-DD and AT1R-CC and early coronary disease. Among the CC patients 58% were DD, compared to 21% among the controls (p = 0.02; OR = 5.32, 95% CI = 1.45, 19.51). We determined the distribution of these genotypes among the hypertensive and non-hypertensive patients. Frequencies of ACE- or AT1R-genotypes did not differ between the two groups. However, we found an interaction between the DD- and CC-genotypes in the group of normotensives. Among the CC patients, 13% of the hypertensives and 75% of the normotensives were DD (p = 0.014).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate a synergistic contribution of ACE and AT1R polymorphisms to the risk of coronary artery disease. This gene-gene interaction could have clinical implications. Approximately 2% of individuals in our population are CC + DD, and the genotyping of both polymorphisms could identify those with a high relative risk for coronary artery disease.

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